Lockport, Illinois, part of the I & M Canal National Heritage Corridor
The first of two blogs on my plan to transform the statutory and philanthropic foundations of heritage conservation. Today we deal with the statutory in the United States…
As I prepare to move on from Global Heritage Fund after three years, I am committed more than ever to the transformation of the field of heritage conservation. In the distant past, heritage conservation was a curatorial activity that sanctioned and even encouraged the removal of physical – and intangible – artifacts from our economic everyday in order to conserve them as if under a bell jar. But, as I demonstrated in my dissertation, that approach began to die as historic preservation (in the U.S.) and heritage conservation (everywhere else) were infused with community-based activism and organization in the 1960s. I had the good fortune of coming into the field during the creation of the first heritage area in the U.S. 32 years ago.
This was the era of Reaganism and the public-private partnership. Heritage areas not only married historic preservation to natural area conservation, they confirmed preservation as an economic development strategy, an idea which Mary Means started with Main Street a few years earlier. Dozens of heritage areas, Main Streets, and tax credits later, heritage has become so successful that real estate developers now ape the types and styles of past architectures in order to insure their economic success.
Brand new house, 100-year old style
I have had the great fortune to work internationally over the last 17 years, and that work has reinforced my conviction that heritage is a community and economic development strategy. Even the other motivations we ascribe to wanting to save history – education, identity, community – have an economic component. You can’t maintain property values without an educational system. You can’t attract human and financial investment without identity. You can’t sustain development beyond five years without community. Rehabilitating old buildings gives you all three.
Fort Collins, Colorado – making downtown vibrant
The evolution over time has been thus: early in the 20th century, heritage was a curatorial pursuit, and architects dominated especially after the creation of federal programs during the Great Depression. Heritage was also focused largely on tourism, with places like Charleston and New Orleans and Natchez and Tombstone saving buildings to attract tourist dollars.
The Vieux Carré, with fully clothed tourists
That started to change in the 1950s in places like Georgetown and Beacon Hill and Brooklyn Heights, where highly organized communities became historic districts in order to preserve their property values and promote sensitive new development that would not destroy their community, their identity, and indeed their economic investment.
Georgetown, Washington DC
The next four decades witnessed the increasing involvement of communities, and community organization and development, in the creation of historic districts and other forms of zoning that did what all zoning does: preserves investment. The extent of community involvement meant that districts that may not have had the highest architectural INTEGRITY (bad word – will explain in a moment) were designated because the community had a strong identity and a strong investment in historic architecture and landscape.
By the onset of the 21st century, neighborhoods considered “slum and blighted” in the 1960s and 70s were now historic districts, exercising the great middle-class value shared by all: a say in the disposition of your home environment. Preservation (Heritage Conservation) had become a democratic tool.
148th and Convent, Hamilton Heights, New York City
But had it? Many of the activist communities that sought local control through historic zoning ran up against architectural rules that seemed arcane and illogical. The vast majority of designated landmarks and historic districts fell under the architectural category, and a whole set of architectural rules – the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards – had been created back in the 1970s, when the basic historic preservation textbook still had “curatorial” in its title.
Not historic enough in 1991 – North Kenwood, Chicago
Several of my recent blogs have discussed the idea of revamping the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards, which haven’t had much update in a quarter-century. Reading the Standards is a little like watching an old movie or reading a 19th century novel. There are many discussions about this topic going on right now, and my own contribution flows from my international experience and my lifelong understanding that heritage conservation (historic preservation) is above all a community development tool.
Han Li in Dali Dong village, Guizhou
Preservation is a Process, not a Set of Rules
For the last 15 years the best heritage conservation practice follows the Burra Charter, which does not preach community outreach but in fact requires community engagement and input into the entire PROCESS of IDENTIFY, EVALUATE, REGISTER, and TREAT. This came out of the fact that many different cultures value different kinds of heritage and the context statement that is SUPPOSED to be at the beginning of every preservation survey and plan must be DEFINED in part by the local culture. In China, the greatest art is calligraphy. In the West, some believe it to be architecture. Some tribal cultures find it in the landscape and some minority cultures find it in festival and performance. The process of the Burra Charter deals with all of that.
After all architecture is just frozen music anyway
The Problem of Integrity
So why did Australia get this right before the U.S.? Because their native populations had a particularly non-tangible approach to heritage? I would argue it was also the Asian context, where heritage lies more in the performance and craft than in the artifact. But we also have the problem of integrity, in that the U.S. is the only place that uses that word. Everyone else uses authenticity, which by its nature is more accommodating to a broader range of significances. Integrity refers almost exclusively to architecture and formal, visual concerns, although we do have verbiage about “feeling and association” in there, but let’s be honest, we didn’t commit to it.
Smells like teen spirit Los Gatos, CA
Here is Jane Addams Hull House Museum, the Dining Hall, which is an absolute travesty in terms of architectural integrity. The building was moved off its foundation, rotated 90 degrees, moved 50 feet, and covered with a veneer of red bricks IT NEVER HAD in 1965. But each week in the Dining Hall they engage in discussion of the social, political and environmental issues of the day, just as Jane Addams and the residents did a century earlier. From a performative, intangible perspective, this building has more HISTORICAL integrity than almost any other in the land.
The Forum on 43rd in Chicago. Light on Integrity, Super heavy on history. Preserve It!
The other problem is that we treat integrity as an on-off switch, which is, prima facie, cray cray. I wrote about Ray Rast’s approach to this before here. Integrity is no more a YES/NO question than history is a singular narrative. But, nearly 50 years of National Register practice in this country has reinforced the architectural legacy in our system. In some ways, if we actually took the time and trouble to do proper context statements prior to every survey and every community plan, we would start to address the diversity deficit in our own landmarks, but we don’t. We tend to rest on a set of standards and practices written at a time when new buildings were High Modern and old buildings were old-fashioned. All of that has changed completely.
Architecture of its time, 1996. Los Gatos, CA
Architecture of its time, 2014. Los Gatos, CA
So, we swap authenticity for integrity, work to create a series of serious historic context statements with a special focus on minority history, intangible heritage, and non-design based conservation treatments. We should revise the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards to be in line with international practice and we should ACTUALLY FOLLOW the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Preservation Planning. They should reference the Burra Charter and they should insist on stakeholder engagement in each step of IDENTIFY, EVALUATE, REGISTER and TREAT. That would be a start.
So we landmarked the Zephyr Skate Shop but that is a building??? Why not landmark the cultural performance and practice they invented there and in the empty pools of the 1970s California drought???
If we adopt this process, it will make more room for preserving HISTORY as well, where that history is not contained in neat or attractive buildings. As my dear friend and hero Donna Graves says, ‘Interpretation is the fourth leg of preservation.” To capture the diversity of American history we need to reclaim lost sites from oral traditions, from the depredations of disaster and urban renewal. Donna pioneered this a quarter-century ago with a project that garnered my immediate attention even though I was at the other end of Route 66 and would not see it in person for over a decade.
Interpretation is a part of preservation because it preserves intangible, lost and oftentimes deliberately buried history. It activates the power of place, which is what LA’s Biddy Mason park was and is, and it can activate and sustain community.
Activating and sustaining community is the fundamental work of preservation.
Next time: A new heritage practice for a new philanthropy